Earth System Models are able to make future projections of how climate and climate change will evolve over the next centuries. These experiements span over a wide range of years and forcing conditions.
Models are initialized with a spin up period of hundreds of years until they reach equilibrium. The pre-industrial conditions are then applied in terms of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Finally, different experiments are performed on both present and future scenarios depending on the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the concomitant effects on the earth system components.